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The condom used with a spermicidal agent is very effective through arteries zippy purchase propranolol pills in toronto, more so than either used alone cardiovascular system yahoo order 80 mg propranolol visa. The pregnancy rate with post coital douching is almost the same as that for unprotected intercourse (80%) cardiovascular disease new treatments cheap propranolol 80 mg with visa. This lack of effectiveness is readily explained by the extremely rapid progression of motile sperm into the endocervical canal. Within several minutes of coitus, sperm have ascended the female reproductive tract and can be found within the endocervical mucus, uterus, and fallopian tubes. Coupled with the failure of a vaginal douche to reach the endocervix, this method is essentially useless. Combined oral contraceptive birth control pills are clearly the most effective reversible contraceptive currently avail able. With correct use, many studies report a contraceptive effectiveness that approaches 100% (pregnancy rate less than 0. This extreme effec tiveness is best explained by the pill’s multiplicity of actions (ie, suppres sion of ovulation, hostility of cervical mucus to sperm penetration, and hostility of atrophic endometrium to the implantation of a conceptus). Failure to take the pills regularly is responsible for most failures, and in practice pregnancy rates of at least 5% are common. If these side effects are Human Sexuality and Contraception Answers 319 experienced in the first two or three cycles of pills—-when they are most common—-the pills may be safely continued, as these effects usually remit spontaneously. On occasion, following correct use of a full cycle of pills, withdrawal bleeding may fail to occur (silent menses). Pregnancy is a very unlikely explanation for this event; therefore, pills should be resumed as usual (after 7 days) just as if bleeding had occurred. However, if a second consecutive period has been missed, pregnancy should be more seriously considered and ruled out by a pregnancy test, medical examination, or both. Women occasionally forget to take pills; however, when only a single pill has been omitted, it can be taken immediately in addition to the usual pill at the usual time. If three or more pills are omitted, the pill should be resumed as usual, but an additional contraceptive method (eg, con doms) should be used through one full cycle. Although most side effects caused by birth control pills can be considered minor, serious side effects do sometimes occur. This page intentionally left blank Sexual Abuse and Domestic Violence Q uestions 461. Through further questioning, the woman reveals that she was sexually assaulted at a party 3 weeks ago by a male friend whom she recently started dating. She states that she has not revealed this to anyone else and has not informed the police because she was drinking. When you first encounter this patient to take a detailed his tory, she remains very calm but has trouble remembering the details of the experience. Which of the following is most likely a component of the acute phase of the rape trauma syndrome The reaction of the victim may be influenced by victim’s relationship to the attacker. A 36-year-old woman drops by your office unexpectedly and wants to be seen for chronic pelvic pain. She has seen you in the past for well woman examinations and has been treated for chlamydia. During questioning her about her chief complaint, she reveals that she was sexu ally assaulted last night at a club after having drinks with some girlfriends. You attempt to take detailed history of the assault; however, the woman’s memory seems cloudy and inconsistent. The victim’s inability to think clearly and remember things is best explained by which of the following You are called to the emergency department to evaluate an 18-year old woman for a vulvar laceration. The father explains that the injury was caused by a fall onto the sup port bar on her bicycle. You interview the woman alone and find out that her father has been sexually assaulting her. Which of the following state ments best describes injuries related to sexual assault

The sustainability of from the fruit 403 cardiovascular disease buy 80 mg propranolol visa, seeds are carried along and dropped along the these trees includes guidelines that only allow for a particular wasps’ path arteries that feed the heart buy 40mg propranolol, thus spreading the seeds of the fig tree and tree to blood vessels with one way valves cheap 40mg propranolol otc be tapped after the tree has reached at least seven prolonging the existence of F. Insipida (Smith and Bronstein, years of maturity, leaving a gap of twelve months between 1996). Because of its similarity to other species in Costa Rica and Panama, this particular species of fig tree has been confused 225 | M edicinal Plant M onographs Traditional Uses Among the peoples of the Peruvian Amazon that speak Iquito, the approach to healing involves not only dietary restrictions the latex from this species has been used traditionally as an and limiting physical activity but also the use of plants anthelmintic in Central and South America (de Amorin et al. Rather, they felt that since one was born with such associated with certain plants are integral into the type of diet parasites, they were merely treating the symptoms, such as and illness treated. Unlike the peoples living in the Napo River diarrhea, respiratory complications, and pale complexion, and region, this group believes F. Another group that uses the accomplished via non-boiled or unsanitized drinking water latex mixture are the Ese-Eja Indians, who tap the tree for and/or via the soil. The latex is then mixed with the juice of oranges, cocona, or sugar cane and given orally in small doses (spoonfuls). The latex is Chemistry and Pharmacology sometimes mixed with sugarcane brandy to prevent In a recent study, the chemical constituents of Ficus insipida decomposition and fungal growth, in order to prolong storage were measured from the reserves at La Selva Biological (Hansson et al. This is done in the early morning, Reserve in Costa Rica via the leaves collected from the tree. Accompanying the latex mixture is a period of the leaves were dried and subsequently doused in 70% fasting in which only sanitized water is drunk throughout the acetone to extract constituents. At night a light meal of plantains and manioc is commonly seen in Table 1 (Ardon and Pringle, 2009). To treat the active constituent that gives this tree its anthelminitc anemia, diarrhea, and abdominal distension, this remedy is properties is the proteolytic enzyme ficin, also known as ficain taken for 2 consecutive days once every 4 months, to avoid (de Amorin et al. The remedy is considered successful when visible cysteine proteases, in the papain family, found within the Ficus symptoms have disappeared (Quave 2000). Ficin contains 2 L-cysteine thiol groups; these thiol groups act as catalytic sites (Malthouse and Brocklehurst, 1976). It is at these sites that 226 | M edicinal Plant M onographs Known Constituents % Mass Clinical Studies Condensed Tannins 0. Ascaris, in vitro, in which concentrations of latex (in physiological saline solution) as low as 0. This area was of great interest due to the 39 maturation, to regulate the folding of proteins, and in some reported cases, involving mostly children, of F. Of the 39 cases, the majority were assembly of storage proteins for seed utilization. One resistance, it was found that the hydrolytic enzymes are fatality occurred among the hospitalized patients, while two involved in the inhibition of larvae growth (Gonzalez-Rabade fatalities were reported to have occurred outside the confines et al. In severe cases of toxicity cerebral edema was reported, for which the treatment was mannitol. Biological Activity Additionally, in less severe overdoses adults were reported as having primarily cardiovascular and respiratory In a study conducted by de Amorin et al. The latex at 3 ml/kg/day for 3 consecutive days showed significant treatment for the less severe cases involved various kinds of elimination of A. When a high dose of 10 ml/kg/day was applied for 3 consecutive days, the authors found a lethality of 60%, thus, demonstrating the toxicity of this latex at both high and low doses. However, only large overdoses (>4 cm3/kg) have been reported to cause the cerebral edema and fatalities (Hansson et al. In Peru, bottles of latex mixtures are sold latex marketed by Natural Remedies by independent vendors in many of the main markets. According to the vendors, the one liter of water, and to drink this mixture every other day recommended dose is approximately 2 cm3/kg, which can be until the problems subside (Natural Remedies Haven Ltd. This regimen should be applied Discussion once or twice a year, as needed (Hansson et al. This slightly contradicts the recommended dose found to be safe the latex derived from Ficus insipida Willd.

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After a sharp fall coronary heart calcifications buy 40 mg propranolol free shipping, it rises again to cardiovascular disease foods to avoid propranolol 40 mg without prescription about Uterus—There is increased vascularity with hyper 150–200 pg/mL in the luteal phase (Fig heart disease quotes order propranolol 80 mg online. It changes the uterus from Total quantity of estradiol production during a the infantile to adult form. Withdrawal of estrogen causes Secondary sex characters—Estrogen tends to shedding of the endometrium and menstruation. The hormone is Cervix—Estrogen causes hypertrophy of the cervix responsible for feminine body configuration and and increases the cervical gland secretion. There secretion is more watery, alkaline with less protein 74 textbook of gyNeCology Fig. Blood—Estrogen increases the coagulability of blood Positive Feedback by increasing many procoagulants, chiefly fibrinogen. High levels of estrogen (>200 pg/mL) exert a positive the platelets become more adhesive. It lowers the blood cholesterol and lowers the incidence of coronary the positive feedback effect cannot occur in heart disease in women prior to menopause. It has got the postovulatory phase because of the presence of widespread capillary vasodilatation effect. Chapter 7 NeuroeNdoCriNology iN relatioN to reproduCtioN 75 x It increases the binding globulin in circulation and Fallopian tubes—The epithelial cells are stimulated raises the blood levels of protein bound iodine and to secrete clear mucus which helps in migration of the protein bound cortisol. The progesterone is secreted from the luteinized theca General—Progesterone is thermogenic, raises the granulosa cells of the corpus luteum. There may be is however, secreted from the theca granulosa cells of enhanced deposition of fat in the tissues. It promotes the secretion of sebum by the Progesterone is bound mainly to albumin (79%) and skin. Endocrinal system It is metabolized in the liver and excreted as sodium Hypothalamopituitary axis pregnanediol glucuronide (pregnanediol) in the urine. Only the principal negative feedback action of progesterone 20% of secreted progesterone is conjugated and is upon the midcycle gonadotropin surge and it may appears in the urine as pregnanediol. Progesterone by itself does not appear to exert 17 hydroxy progesterone is an important product a positive feedback effect. The positive feedback effect of estradiol in the secretory phase is inhibited amount of production and blood by progesterone. Daily excretion of pregnanediol in the urine is less Ovary than 1 mg in follicular phase and 3–6 mg in luteal phase. Progesterone acts through both intraovarian and central Serum value of progesterone is less than 1 ng/ negative feedback mechanisms to suppress new follicular mL in follicular phase and 5–15 ng/mL in midluteal growth. The character of the cervical are—dehydroepiandrosterone, androstenedione and mucus is changed and become more thick and viscid testosterone. Vagina—The maturation of the vaginal epithelium is the androgens are reduced to androsterone and hindered. These can be measured in the urine cells with folded edges and a tendency to clump. Between the follicles, there are parafollicular by the pituitary and granulosa cells. Ovarian function is Inhibin: Inhibin is secreted by the granulosa cells markedly related to the thyroid activity. It produces retention of sodium and increased excretion of potassium through the Relaxin is secreted from the preovulatory follicle and renal tubules. The principal hormones that are secreted Growth factors are polypeptides and they act locally are cortisol, corticosterone (gluco-corticoids); and through paracrine and autocrine way. Chapter 7 NeuroeNdoCriNology iN relatioN to reproduCtioN 77 pituitary ovarian axis (Fig. The secretion of hormones from these glands is modified through feedback mechanism operating through this axis.

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Although radiation can improve symptoms blood vessels that connect networks of capillary beds are order cheap propranolol on line, there currently is no known curative therapy for most children with brainstem gliomas arteries structure buy on line propranolol. Patients with high-risk neuroblastoma require treatment with virtually all known therapeutic modalities to blood vessels that carry blood away from the heart purchase propranolol 80 mg overnight delivery maximize the likelihood of cure. Therapy often requires administration of multiagent chemotherapy, surgical resection, stem cell transplantation, radiation therapy, differentiation therapy with 13-cis-retinoic acid (Accutane), and most recently, immunotherapy. Abnormal migration of neural crest cells, which are destined for the adrenal medulla or the para-aortic sympathetic ganglia, forms pockets of immature neuroma. Children with disseminated neuroblastoma are irritable and ill, and they often have exquisite bone pain, proptosis, and periorbital ecchymoses. Seventy percent of neuroblastomas arise in the abdomen; half of these arise in the adrenal gland, and the other half arise in the parasympathetic ganglia and are distributed throughout the retroperitoneum and the paravertebral area in the chest and neck. The syndrome can occur from congenital brachial plexus injury, but acquired Horner syndrome requires evaluation for cervical, intrathoracic, or intracranial pathology, particularly neuroblastoma. Neuroblastoma spreads to the liver, the bone, the bone marrow, and, less commonly, the skin. These symptoms are thought to arise from a nonspecific antibody reaction to neuroblastoma that cross-reacts with the motor end plate. Urinary concentrations of catecholamines and metabolites, including dopamine, homovanillic acid, and vanillylmandelic acid, are often increased (>3 standard deviations above the mean per milligram creatinine for age) in children with neuroblastoma. Which molecular abnormality is associated with a more aggressive form of neuroblastoma The presence of myc-N amplification renders a patient at higher risk for recurrence regardless of staging. Along with a primary tumor, these infants may have bone marrow, liver, and skin disease as well. Even without therapy, these cancers spontaneously regress and disappear over time. Treatment is only indicated if the patient is symptomatic from the underlying disease. What nuclear medicine agent has been useful in both the diagnosis and treatment of neuroblastoma It is structurally similar to norepinephrine and found to concentrate within the neurosecretory granules of catecholamine producing cells. Spinal tenderness on percussion correlates with localization in up to 80% of patients. In addition, neurologic evaluation of strength, sensory level changes, reflexes, and anal tone can help to pinpoint the location in the spinal cord, the conus medullaris (the terminal neural portion of the spinal cord), or the cauda equina. Progression is rapid with spinal cord compression but may be rapid or variable with compression of the conus medullaris or the cauda equina. Leukokoria, or white pupil, can be obvious, or it can be a subtle asymmetry on pupillary red reflex evaluation. Although other diagnoses can accompany leukokoria, the most significant one is retinoblastoma. Although most cases are sporadic, retinoblastoma can be inherited as an autosomal dominant trait with nearly complete penetrance. Of all cases, 60% are nonhereditary and unilateral, 15% are hereditary and unilateral, and 25% are hereditary and bilateral. Alfred Knudson’s “two-hit” hypothesis is a basic tenet of malignant transformation. In 1971, Knudson calculated the genetic probabilities of developing retinoblastoma and hypothesized that patients with bilateral disease first inherited a germline mutation and then underwent a second somatic mutation to develop the disease. Patients with unilateral or sporadic disease developed two somatic mutations during early childhood. The identification of the genes associated with the first of the “two hits” correctly predicted the presence of tumor suppressor genes.



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